14 Dec 2005
tar -xf (filename)
12 Dec 2005
01 Oct 2004
% proj1oracale.nova < test.ok.in > oracle.ok.out
23 Sep 2004
i386 = pentium machine
chmod u+x oracle
oracle test.html > out.txt
diff out1.txt out2.txt
10 Sep 2004
// to look up grades
//to install synergy
Red Hat Linux
Table E-1, contains a listing of some popular (and obscure) partition types, along with their numeric values.
Table E-1. Partition Types
2.7.2. Configuration File Structure
The GRUB menu interface configuration file is /boot/grub/grub.conf. The commands to set the global preferences for the menu interface are placed at the top of the file, followed by the different entries for each of the operating systems or kernels listed in the menu.
The following is a very basic GRUB menu configuration file designed to boot either Red Hat Linux and Microsoft Windows 2000:
This file tells GRUB to build a menu with Red Hat Linux as the default operating system and sets it to autoboot after 10 seconds. Two sections are given, one for each operating system entry, with commands specific to the system disk partition table.
18.104.22.168. File System Types
Red Hat Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system they will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how they can be utilized.
File compression is a nice way to reduce the amount of disk space required to store data; it works by reducing the redundancy in data. Most text and html files compress well, since they use some characters more commonly than others (for example the letter 'e' is much more common in English text than 'z'), and contain many words and phrases used more than once. Other file types (for example, MRI images) have less redundancy and regularity, so they are more difficult to compress.
Most Windows users compress files into ZIP format, while Linux and other Unix users prefer GZ (for single files) and TAR.GZ (for collections of files; the extension .TGZ is also used for these). Most of the free compression tools for Windows will decompress GZ and TAR.GZ files; however, creating GZ files is not a common feature. My ezGZ program (shift+click to download program and source code) is a simple drag and drop GZ/TAR.GZ compressor and decompressor. If you drop a file with the extension '.GZ', ezGZ will decompress the file; if you drop any other file on the program, it will create a new, compressed file with the GZ extension (e.g. 'filename.ext' will be saved as 'filename.ext.gz'). You have the option of setting the compression level between 1 (fast, but little compression) to 9 (slow, but optimal compression).Usually, a value of about 6 is fine.
It should be pointed out that the GZ format only stores one file, whilst the ZIP format can store multiple files. So, to compress collections of files, UNIX users first combine them using the 'tar' program, and then run 'gzip' on the .TAR file that produces. These tar+gzipped files are usually denoted with the extension '.TAR.GZ' or 'TGZ'. If you drop multiple files onto my program, it will give you the option to create a single '.TAR.GZ' file that stores a compressed copy of all the source files. Likewise, if you drag and drop any file with the extension '.TAR', '.TGZ' or '.TAR.GZ', ezGZ will decompress it.
This page describes md5, a command line utility usable on either Unix or MS-DOS/Windows, which generates and verifies message digests (digital signatures) using the MD5 algorithm. This program can be useful when developing shell scripts or Perl programs for software installation, file comparison, and detection of file corruption and tampering.
Read through all the instructions before you begin downloading.
The following steps need to be taken to download and install Fedora Core:
You are downloading an entire operating system, and in most cases, you are then going to install the operating system on your computer.
If you are connected to the Internet via a slow connection, like a modem, then downloading Fedora Core will be an extremely time-consuming process. The time it takes to download the installation files for Fedora Core depends greatly upon your connection speed to the Internet. For example, if you are downloading the installation disk images (called ISOs), then each image file will weigh in at just under 650 MB. This means that with a 56K modem connection it will take approximately 27 hours to complete the download of just one disk, and most installations require more than one.
If you intend to transform your existing single-boot system into a dual-boot system, you need to make room for Fedora Core. You can do this by adding a new hard drive or by modifying the existing partitions on the hard drive already in the system.
Refer to Configuring a Dual-Boot System for more detailed instructions.
To install Fedora Core, download the DVD image or the four ISO images of the installation CD-ROMs, even if you are planning to perform a hard drive installation.
Downloading the ISO Images
The ISO images are located at the following URL:
To install from a DVD that you plan to burn, download the following ISO image files:
For x86-compatible (32-bit): FC2-i386-DVD.iso (md5sum:
Note: If you are using HTTP or FTP to download, some download
clients cannot handle the DVD image because it is larger than 4 gigabytes.
Please refer to the documentation of your download client for details.
For x86-compatible (32-bit):
For x86_64 (64-bit AMD64, EM64T):
ISO images containing the source RPMs are also located in the same directory as the ISO images containing the binaries; however, they are not required to install Fedora Core.
After downloading the ISO images, check the MD5 checksums for the ISO images
to ensure that your download was successful. Do this by running the
The following illustrates the correct syntax for the
In the above command, replace <isofilename> with the correct file name.
If the MD5 sums match, burn the ISO images to CD-Rs or CD-RWs. Note: writing
the ISOs to CD requires a program such as
If you are already running Linux, you can save an ISO image to a directory on your machine or another machine on the network. You may then mount the ISO image to look at or copy files. To mount an ISO image, use the following command:
In the above command replace <isofilename> and <mountpoint> with the correct file name and mount point respectively. The directory given as the mount point must exist.
Note: ISO images are not written to CDs/DVDs the same way as files.
If you are already running Fedora Core, refer to
CD-Rs and CD-RWs for instructions on using
Be sure to label the DVDs/CDs after burning them.
The ISOs have an md5sum embedded in them. It is strongly recommended you verify the md5sum on any Fedora Core CDs or DVD you create using downloaded ISO images. This will ensure that the disk was burned correctly and prevent installation failures related to bad media. To test the checksum integrity of the DVD/CDs, boot off the DVD or first CD, and type the following command at the boot: prompt:
The checksum operation can be performed in any order.
To start the installation program, boot from the DVD, the first CD, or the
boot CD made from the
You can use the Red Hat Update Agent (